This is the last corner of far northeastern Europe before the border with Siberia and the neighbouring Yamal Peninsula. Most of it lies beyond the Arctic Circle and, though over four times as big as Switzerland, has a population of only 42,000. There is almost no road network so land transport is by river boats in summer and snowmobiles or all-terrain vehicles in winter. Many of the indigenous Nenets reindeer herders here now only work three-month shifts with their reindeer, although they still live in conical reindeer-hide tents when doing so, move camp by reindeer sledge and wear reindeer fur clothing. Sadly, alcoholism is widespread and most people under forty no longer know the Nenets language. There is one nomadic Nenets community, however, that managed to completely avoid collectivisation under the Soviet Union. To this day, they do not go to school, speak Russian or have passports, living year-round nomadic existences. The Okrug is easy to get to as permits are required only for areas within 20 km of the coast or islands, such as idol-strewn Vaygach, the former Nenets "Mecca".